Albania: Ottoman rule:§ Revolutionary – Ottoman rule:Protectoritarian
Indonesia: Majapahit --
DR Congo: -- Luba kingdom established
Brazil: -- Portuguese rule
Sweden: Feudal Parliamentarian/Royal Feudalism – Feudalism
Azerbaijan: Ak Koyunlu – Persian rule
Honduras: Lenca – Spanish rule
Zansibar: Portuguese rule
Poland: Royal Authoritarian -- Royalism
Korea: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Revolutionary
Korea: Revolutionary -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Oman: -- Portuguese rule
Hungary: (*Royal Feudalism*)/XRoyalism – Semi-Royalism
Puerto Rico: Spanish rule – Spanish rule*:
Ethiopia: *Royal Authoritarian*? -- Regency:*Hierarchial*
Jamaica: -- Spanish rule
England: Royal Authoritarian -- XRoyalism
France: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Absolutism
Florence: *Authoritarian* -- *Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism
England: XRoyalism -- *Royal Authoritarian
Sweden: Feudalism – Feudal Parliamentarian
Denmark: Royal Hierarchial/Semi-Absolutism -- *Royal Authoritarian/Royal Hierarchial
Scotland: -- (*)Royal Hierarchial/(*Royal Authoritarian)
Scotland: (*)Royal Hierarchial/(*Royal Authoritarian) -- *Authoritarian/*Feudalism
Armenia: -- Ottoman rule
England: *Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial
Sweden: Feudal Parliamentarian – Contra-Executivian/Feudalism
Bavaria: -- Royal Authoritarian
Ethiopia: Regency:*Hierarchial* --
Egypt: Burji – Ottoman rule:Protectoritarian-Federal
Denmark: *Royal Authoritarian/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Hierarchial/Semi-Absolutism
Bohemia: Feudalism/*Authoritarian -- *Feudalism(Royal Parliamentarian)/XRoyal Parliamentarian
Austria: Royal Authoritarian – (*)Royal Authoritarian
Austria: (*)Royal Authoritarian -- *Royal Authoritarian
Korea: *Royal Authoritarian -- *Royal Feudalism*
Aragon: Royal Authoritarian/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Hierarchial
Castille: *Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
Castille: Royal Authoritarian – Revolutionary
Sweden: Contra-Executivian/Feudalism – Royal Feudalism
Sweden: Royal Feudalism – Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Hierarchial
Netherlands: XRoyalism – Royal Authoritarian
Mexico: -- Spanish rule
Castille: Revolutionary – Royal Hierarchial
Wallachia: §Royal Feudalism -- Protectoritarian
Sweden: Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Hierarchial – Contra-Executivian/Feudalism
Bohemia: *Feudalism(Royal Parliamentarian)/XRoyal Parliamentarian -- XRoyalism
Wallachia: Protectoritarian -- *Royal Authoritarian/*Royal Feudalism
Costa Rica: -- Spanish rule
Nicaragua: -- Spanish rule
Denmark: Royal Hierarchial/Semi-Absolutism -- *Royal Authoritarian(*)
Guatemala: -- Spanish rule
Sweden: Contra-Executivian/Feudalism – Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Hierarchial
Iran: *Royal Hierarchial* -- *Authoritarian*
Korea: *Royal Feudalism* -- Interim/Revolutionary
Bohemia: XRoyalism -- *Royal Feudalism/XRoyalism
Colombia: -- Spanish rule
Serbia: (§Royal Absolutism) -- §*Hierarchial*
Hungary: Semi-Royalism -- Royal Hierarchial
Bohemia: *Royal Feudalism/XRoyalism -- *Royal Feudalism/XRoyalism
Wallachia: *Royal Authoritarian/*Royal Feudalism -- §*Royal Hierarchial*/§Royal Absolutism
Sweden: Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
Serbia: §*Hierarchial -- §Royal Absolutism
Korea: Interim/Revolutionary -- (*Royal Feudalism*)
Scotland: *Authoritarian/*Feudalism* -- *Royal Authoritarian/*Royal Hierarchial
England: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian (year?)
Florence: *Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism -- *Authoritarian*
Austria: *Royal Authoritarian -- **Royal Authoritarian**
Aragon: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism
Poland: Royalism -- XRoyalism
Florence: *Authoritarian* -- Royal Absolutism
Ethiopia: -- Self-rule
Ecuador: Inca rule –
Netherlands: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial/Royal Executivian
Trinidad: - Spanish rule
Ecuador: Inca-rule – Spanish rule
Denmark: *Royal Authoritarian(*) – Feudalism
Denmark: Feudalism --
Ecuador: -- Spanish rule
Canada: -- French rule
Argentina: -- Spanish rule:Protectoritarian
Denmark: Feudalism -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Norway: -- #Royal Executivian#/#*Royal Authoritarian*#
Serbia: §Royal Absolutism -- Protectoritarian
Castille: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism
Sweden: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial
Bolivia: (Inca rule) – Spanish rule(Peru)
Honduras: -- Spanish rule
Bohemia: *Royal Feudalism/XRoyalism – Royal Authoritarian
Ireland: Representativian(*XRoyal Parliamentarian*/Feudalism) – Representativian:Royal Authoritarian
Hungary: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
Hungary: Royal Authoritarian
Philippines: -- Spanish rule
Scotland: *Royal Authoritarian/*Royal Hierarchial -- *Authoritarian/*Feudalism
Sweden: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
Korea: (*Royal Feudalism*) -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Bavaria: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial
Korea: *Royal Authoritarian* -- Regency:*Authoritarian*
France: Royal Absolutism -- *Royal Hierarchial*
Bohemia: Royal Authoritarian -- *Royal Parliamentarian
Bohemia: *Royal Parliamentarian – Royal Executivian/Royal Hierarchial
England: Royal Authoritarian -- *Royalism/*Authoritarian/*XRoyalism*
Belgium: Representativian --
Bohemia: Royal Executivian/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
England: *Royalism/*Authoritarian/*XRoyalism* -- Revolutionary
England: Revolutionary -- *Authoritarian/*Royalism*/*XRoyalism*
Colombia: Spanish rule – Spanish rule*
Costa Rica: Spanish rule – Spanish rule*
Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian
England: *Authoritarian/*Royalism*/*XRoyalism* -- XRoyalism
Korea: Regency:*Authoritarian* -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Netherlands: Royal Hierarchial/Royal Executivian -- Protectoritarian
Spain: -- Royal Hierarchial
England: XRoyalism – Royal Authoritarian
Estonia: German rule: Protectoritarian – Swedish rule-Russian rule
Maldives: -- Portuguese rule
France: *Royal Hierarchial* -- *Absolutism*
Austria: **Royal Authoritarian** -- Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial
France: *Absolutism* -- *Authoritarian
Ireland: Representativian: Royal Authoritarian – Protectoritarian:(Royal Feudalism)
Sweden: Royal Authoritarian – Xroyalism?
Scotland: *Authoritarian/*Feudalism – (§)*Royal Authoritarian (1558??)
Bohemia: Royal Authoritarian --
Japan: *Authoritarian* --
Scotland: (§)*Royal Authoritarian -- *Authoritarian*/*Feudalism
Korea: *Royal Hierarchial* -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Hungary: Royal Hierarchial -- XRoyalism
Belarus:Lihuanian rule – Lithuanian rule: Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth
Ghana: Division – Ashanti rule
Norway: #*Royal Authoritarian*# -- Royal Feudalism
Poland: XRoyalism – Interim
Netherlands: Protectoritarian – XRoyalism + Protectoritarian(UNI-Revolutionary?)
Maldives: Portuguese rule –
Poland: Interim -- Semi-Royalism
Tunisia: (Hafsid)? – Ottoman rule
France: *Authoritarian -- *Royal Hierarchial*
Korea: *Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Hierarchial*
France: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Royal Hierarchial
Austria: Royal Executivian/*Royal Hierarchial -- *Royal Authoritarian(*)
Netherlands: XRoyalism + Protectoritarian(Uni-Revolutionary) – Non-Executivarian/Interim
Iran: Royal Executivian -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Netherlands: Non-Executivarian/Interim – Presidential ?
Bavaria: Royal Authoritarian -- XRoyalism
Finland: -- §*Royal Hierarchial
Portugal: (Royal Hierarchial) – Royal Authoritarian
Azerbaijan: Persian rule – Ottoman rule
Argentina: Spanish rule
Estonia: Swedish rule-Russian rule – Swedish rule
Finland: §*Royal Hierarchial* -- *Hierarchial*
Canada: French rule – French rule,British rule
France: Royal Hierarchial -- *Royal Hierarchial*
Belgium: -- §*Royal Authoritarian*/§*Royal Feudalism*
Guinea: Mali Empire – Moroccoan rule
Denmark: *Royal Authoitarian* -- *Authoritarian
Netherlands: Presidential? -- XRoyalism
France: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Revolutionary
Scotland: *Authoritarian*/*Feudalism – Royal Authoritarian (XRoyalism)
France: Revolutionary -- *Royal Hierarchial*
Mali: Songai – Morocoan rule
Sweden: XRoyalism? – Royalism#/XRoyalism#
Korea: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Uni-Revolutionary
France: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Totalitarian/Interim
France: Totalitarian/Interim – Royal Hierarchial
Wallachia: §*Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism -- §*Royal Authoritarian
Denmark: *Authoritarian -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Bavaria: XRoyalism – Royal Hierarchial
Korea: -- *Royal Hierarchial*
Korea: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Uni-Revolutionary
Ethiopia: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Regency:*AUTHORITARIAN*
Portugal: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial
Mauritius: -- Dutch rule
Belgium: §*Royal Authoritarian*/§*Royal Feudalism* -- (§*Royal Authoritarian*)/§*Royal Feudalism*
Korea: Uni-Revolutionary -- (*Royal Feudalism*)
Sweden: Royalism#/XRoyalism# -- XRoyalism#/Royalism#
Niger: Songhai -- Tuarec,Hausa
Hungary: XRoyalism – Royal Executivian
Zimbabwe: -- Rozwi empire established (16xx??)
Cyprus: -- Ottoman rule
Algeria: -- Ottoman rule
Angola: -- Portugues rule
Uruguay: -- Spanish rule
Austria: *Royal Authoritarian(*) – Royal Hierarchial
Guyana: -- Dutch rule
“Romania”: -- Royal Feudalism
Chad: -- Baguirimi established
Cameroon: -- “Portuguese influence”
Burundi: -- State established
Eritrea: -- Ottoman rule
See also: 16th century in literature
2 Significant people
3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
4 Decades and Years
Martin Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529)
1500s: Mississippian culture disappears.
1501: Safavid dynasty rules Iran until 1736.
1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three or four years later.
1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain.
1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade.
1513: The Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares lands at Macau, China, during the Ming Dynasty.
1514: The Battle of Orsha halts Muscovy's expansion into Eastern Europe.
1515: The Ottoman Empire wrests Eastern Anatolia from the Safavids after the Battle of Chaldiran.
1516-17: The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and gain control of Egypt, Arabia, and the Levant.
1517: The Protestant Reformation begins when Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses in Saxony.
1518: Mir Chakar Khan Rind left Baluchistan and settled in Punjab.
1519: Leonardo da Vinci died of natural causes at May 2.
1519: Wang Yangming, the Chinese philosopher and governor of Jiangxi province, describes his intent to use the fire power of the fo-lang-ji, a breech-loading Portuguese culverin, in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince Zhu Chen-hao.
1519-21: Hernán Cortés leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
1519-22: Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan and Elcano first to circle Earth
1520-1650: Commercial Revolution in Europe
1520-66: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire.
1521: Belgrade is captured by the Ottoman Empire.
1521: After building fortifications at Tuen Mun, the Portuguese attempt to invade Ming Dynasty China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces.
1523: Sweden gains independence from the Kalmar Union.
1524-25: Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire.
1526: The Ottomans conquer the Kingdom of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács.
1526: Mughal Empire, founded by Babur, rules India until 1739 and hold titles until 1857.
1527: Sack of Rome is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance.
1527: Protestant Reformation begins in Sweden.
1529: The Siege of Vienna marks the Ottoman Empire's furthest advance into Europe.
Henry VIIIKing of England and Irelandby Hans Holbein the Younger.
1531-32: The Church of England breaks away from the Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church.
1532: Francisco Pizarro leads the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
1534: Jacques Cartier claims Quebec for France.
1534: The Ottomans capture Baghdad.
1539: Hernando de Soto explores inland North America
1543: The Nanban trade period begins after Portuguese traders make contact with Japan.
1550-1551: Valladolid debate concerning the existence of souls in Amerindians
1552: Russia conquers the Khanate of Kazan.
1553: Portuguese founded a settlement at Macau.
1555: The Muscovy Company is the first major English joint stock trading company.
1556: Publication in Venice of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of Indian village Hochelaga. See 
1556: The Shaanxi Earthquake in China is history's deadliest known earthquake.
1556: Georgius Agricola, the "Father of Mineralogy", publishes his De re metallica.
1556: Russia conquers the Astrakhan Khanate.
1556-1605: During his reign, Akbar expands the Mughal Empire in a series of conquests.
1556: Mir Chakar Khan Rind captured Delhi with Emperor Humayun.
1556: Pomponio Algerio, radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the Roman inquisition.
1557: The Portuguese settle in Macau.
1558-1603: The Elizabethan era is considered the height of the English Renaissance.
1558-83: Livonian War between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark and Russia.
1558: After 200 years, the Kingdom of England loses Calais to France.
1559: With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, the Italian Wars conclude.
1560: Erzsebet Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary.
1561: Guido de Bres draws up the Belgic Confession of Protestant faith.
1562: Mughal leader Akbar reconciles the Muslim and Hindu factions by marrying into the powerful Rajput Hindu caste.
1562-98: French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots.
1562: Massacre of Wassy and Battle of Dreux in the French Wars of Religion.
1564: William Shakespeare baptized April 26
1565: Mir Chakar Khan Rind died age of 97.
1566-1648: Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands.
1567: Rising of the Northern Earls in England
1568-1600: The Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan.
1569: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is created with the Union of Lublin which lasts until 1795.
1571: Pope Pius V completes the Holy League as a united front against the Ottoman Turks.
1571: The Holy League defeats a force of Ottoman galleys in the Battle of Lepanto.
1571: Spanish missionaries are murdered by Indians at the later Jamestown Settlement, Virginia.
1572: Brielle is taken from Habsburg Spain by Protestant Watergeuzen in the Capture of Brielle, in the Eighty Years' War.
1572: Spanish conquistadores apprehend the last Inca leader Tupak Amaru at Vilcabamba, Peru, and execute him in Cuzco.
1572: Catherine de' Medici instigates the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which takes the lives of Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny and thousands of Huguenots. The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside.
1577-80: Francis Drake circles the World
1579: The Union of Utrecht unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later Dutch Republic.
1580: Drake's royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions, influences Philip II of Spain to build up the Spanish Armada. English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded.
1580: Spain unifies with Portugal under Philip II. The struggle for the throne of Portugal ends the Portuguese Empire. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640.
1582: Pope Gregory XIII issues the Gregorian calendar.
1582: Yermak Timofeyevich conquers the Siberia Khanate on behalf of the Stroganovs.
1584-85: After the Siege of Antwerp, many of its merchants flee to Amsterdam.
1585-1604: The Anglo-Spanish War is fought on both sides of the Atlantic.
1588: England repulses the Spanish Armada.
1589: Spain repulses the English Armada.
1592-98: Korea, with the help of Ming Dynasty China, repelled two Japanese invasions.
1598: The Edict of Nantes ended the French Wars of Religion.
1598-1613: Russia descended into anarchy during the Time of Troubles.
 Significant people
Henry VII of England, founder of the Tudor dynasty. Introduced ruthlessly efficient mechanisms of taxation which restored the kingdom after a state of virtual bankruptcy due to the effects of the Wars of the Roses (1457 - 1509).
Leonardo da Vinci famous artist and inventor and scientist (1452 – 1519).
Pedro Álvares Cabral, first European to arrive in Brazil in 22 April 1500 (c. 1467 - 1520).
Zygmunt I the Old, King of Poland, established a conscription army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it (1467 - 1548).
Vasco da Gama, Portuguese navigator, first one to sail around the Cape of Good Hope (c. 1469 - 1524).
György Dózsa, leader of the peasants' revolt in Hungary (1470 - 1514)
Nicolaus Copernicus, developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory using scientific methods (1473 - 1543).
Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italian painter and sculptor (1475 - 1564).
Thomas More, English politician and author (1478 - 1535).
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator who sailed around the world (1480 - 1521).
Martin Luther, German religious reformer (1483 - 1546).
Hernán Cortés, Spanish Conquistador (1485 - 1547).
King Henry VIII of England, founder of Anglicanism (1491 - 1547).
Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus (1491 - 1556).
François Rabelais, French author (c. 1493 - 1553).
King Francis I of France, considered the first Renaissance monarch of his Kingdom (1494 - 1547).
Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Conqueror and legal reformer (1494 - 1566).
King Gustav I of Sweden, restored Swedish sovereignty and introduced Protestantism in Sweden (1496-1560).
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first to reign as King of Spain. Involved in almost constant conflict with France and the Ottoman Empire while promoting the Spanish colonization of the Americas (1500 - 1558).
Cuauhtémoc, the last Tlatoani of the Aztec, led the native resistance against the Conquistadores (1502 - 1525).
Michel Nostradamus, French astrologer and doctor, author of Les Propheties, a book of world prophecies (1503 - 1566).
Qiu Ying, Chinese painter who belonged to the Wu School and used gongbi brush style (1494 - 1552)
Mikolaj Rej, Polish writer (1505 - 1569).
Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, Somali Imam and general (1507 - 1543).
John Calvin, theologian, and reformer. Founder of Calvinism (1509 - 1564).
Mary I of England. Attempted to counter the Protestant Reformation in her domains. Nick-named Bloody Mary for her Religious persecution (1516 - 1558).
Luís de Camões, Portuguese poet (c. 1524 –1580).
Pierre de Ronsard, French poet. Called the 'Prince of poets' of his generation. (1524 – 1585).
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Italian Composer (1525 - 1594)
King Philip II of Spain, self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation (1527 - 1598).
Ivan IV of Russia, first Russian tsar (1533-1584).
William the Silent, William I of Orange-Nassau, main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish (1533-1584).
Wanli Emperor, Emperor of China during the Ming Dynasty, aided Korea in the Imjin War, (1563 - 1620)
Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533 – 1592).
Elizabeth I of England, central figure of the Elizabethan era (1533 - 1603).
Oda Nobunaga , daimyo of the Sengoku period of Japanese civil war. First ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1534 - 1582).
Toyotomi Hideyoshi , daimyo of the Sengoku period of Japanese civil war. Second ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1536 - 1598).
Edward VI of England, notable for further differentiating Anglicanism from the practices of the Roman Catholic Church (1537 - 1553).
Lady Jane Grey, Queen regnant of England and Ireland. Notably deposed by popular revolt (1537 - 1554).
Mary I of Scotland, First female head of the House of Stuart (1542 - 1587).
Admiral Yi Sun-sin , Korean admiral, respected as one of the greatest admirals in world history. (1545 - 1598).
Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish author (1547 - 1616).
Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher and astronomer/astrologer (1548 - 1600).
King Henry IV of France and Navarre, ended the French Wars of Religion and reunited the kingdom under his command (1553 - 1610).
Michael the Brave, ruler of Walachia, national symbol of Romanians for uniting the three provinces under his rule in 1600 (1558 - 1601)
Lope de Vega, Spanish dramatist (1562 – 1635).
Christopher Marlowe, English poet and dramatist (1564 – 1593).
William Shakespeare, English author (1564 - 1616).
John Donne, English metaphysical poet (1572 - 1631)
Miyamoto Musashi, famous warrior in Japan, author of The Book of Five Rings, a treaty on strategy and martial combat. (1584 - 1645)
Giovanni Battista Ramusio, diplomat and secretary of council of Ten of Venice Italy, author of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi. Third volume (terzo volume) containing plan La Terra de Hochelaga showing village of Hochelaga (1585 - 1657). See 
John Ford, English dramatist (1586 - c. 1640).
Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit who traveled to Macau, China in 1582, and died in Beijing, (1552 - 1610)
Andrea Amati, (ca. 1520 – ca. 1578) was the earliest maker of violins whose instruments still survive today.
 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Related article: List of 16th century inventions.
The Columbian Exchange introduces many plants, animals and diseases to the Old and New Worlds.
Introduction of the spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production in Europe.
Modern square root symbol (√ )
The letter J is introduced into the English alphabet.
Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun (1543)
Gregorian Calendar adopted by Catholic countries (1582)
1513: Juan Ponce de León sights Florida and Vasco Núñez de Balboa sights the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean.
1519-22: Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano lead the first circumnavigation of the World.
1519-1540: In America, Hernando de Soto expeditions map the Gulf of Mexico coastline and bays.
1540: Francisco Vásquez de Coronado sights the Grand Canyon.
1541-42: Francisco de Orellana sails the length of the Amazon River.
1559-1562: Spanish settlements in Alabama/Florida and Georgia confirm dangers of hurricanes and local native warring tribes.
1565: Spanish settlers outside New Spain (Mexico) colonize Florida's coastline at St. Augustine.
1597: Opera in Florence by Jacopo Peri.
1500: First portable watch is created by Peter Henlein of Germany.
1545: Theory of complex numbers is first developed by Gerolamo Cardamo of Italy.
1558: Camera obscura is first used by Giambattista della Porta of Italy.
1565: Invention of the graphite pencil (in a wooden holder) by Conrad Gesner. Modernized in 1812.
1568: Gerardus Mercator creates the first Mercator Projection map.
1572: Supernova SN 1572 is observed by Tycho Brahe in the Milky Way.
1582: Gregorian calendar is introduced in Europe by Pope Gregory XIII.
c. 1583: Galileo Galilei of Pisa, Italy identifies the constant swing of a pendulum, leading to development of reliable timekeepers.
1585: earliest known reference to the 'sailing carriage' in China.
1589: William Lee invents the stocking frame.
1591: First flush toilet is introduced by Sir John Harrington of England, the design published under the title 'The Metamorphosis of Ajax'.
1593 - Galileo Galilei invents a thermometer.
1596: William Barents discovers Spitsbergen.